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Int Neurourol J > Volume 9(2); 2005 > Article
Clinical Investigation
Journal of the Korean Continence Society 2005;9(2): 93-101.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5213/jkcs.2005.9.2.93   
Adaptation of the Clean Intermittent Catheterization to Daily Life in Patients with Neurogenic Voiding Dysfunction Secondary to Spinal Cord Injury or Spinal Cord Disease.
Seung June Oh, Hwang Gyun Jeon, Ja Hyeon Ku, Nam Jong Paik, Hyung Ik Shin
1Department of Urology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Korea. sjo@snu.ac.kr
2Department of Urology, Seoul Veterans Hospital, Korea.
3Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
ABSTRACT
PURPOSE
While performing clean intermittent catheterization(CIC), atraumatic and non-infecting techniques are important in preventing long-term complications secondary to CIC. The aim of this study is to characterize several essential technical aspects of CIC in patients with neurologically stable spinal cord injury or diseases(SCI/D).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Between July 2002 and March 2003, a prospective questionnaire survey was undertaken in 106 neurologically stable SCI/D patients who were performing CIC as primary bladder emptying methods. Structured questionnaire was administered with the interview. Questionnaire items included key technical CIC steps and related questions.
RESULTS
Mean age of the patients(74 males and 32 females) were 35.9(+/-1.3, SE) years and the duration of CIC was 17.3(+/-2.3) months. Levels of SCI/D were: cervical in 45 patients(42.4%), followed by thoracic in 43(40.6%), lumbar in 16(15.1%), and sacral in 2(1.9%). Omitting hand washing before CIC was found in 16 patients(15.1%), meatal cleansing before CIC in 13(12.3%), using lubricants in 12(11.3%), and performing CIC as a timed basis in 36(34.0%). The most preferred posture to perform CIC were: sitting(63.0%), followed by lying(19.1%) and standing(14.6%) in men, while sitting(45.6%), followed by the squatting(33.3%) and lying(15.8%) in women. Majority of the patients performed CIC five times a day with spending about ten minutes for each CIC. Omitting key elements were not significantly associated with the sex, age, level of SCI/D, duration of CIC, level of education, socioeconomic status. However, omitting meatal cleaning before CIC were significantly associated with the patients with shorter duration of performing CIC, lower educational level, and lower socioeconomic status(p<0.05). 57.6% of the patients were satisfied with the current CIC methods.
CONCLUSION
Our results showed that some patients do omit key elements of the CIC steps. These elements should be emphasized during the initial CIC education and also must be screened during long-term followup in the SCI/D patients performing CIC.
Keywords: Neurogenic bladder; Spinal cord injuries; Spinal cord diseases; Catheterizations; Questionnaires
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